While scientists have not found any stone tools associated with Paranthropus robustus fossils, experiments and microscopic studies of bone fragments show that these early humans probably used bones as tools to dig in termite mounds. Broom's first discovery of P. robustus had been the first discovery of a robust australopithecine and the second australopithecine after Australopithecus africanus, … In total, over 300 P. robustus specimens representing over 130 individuals, predominantly isolated teeth, have been recovered from Swartkrans. Australopithecine bone technology was first proposed by Dart in the 1950s with what he termed the "osteodontokeratic culture", which he attributed to A. africanus at Makapansgat dating to 3–2.6 million years ago. , A 2006 carbon isotope analysis suggested that P. robustus subsisted on mainly C4 savanna plants or C3 forest plants depending on the season, which could indicate either seasonal shifts in diet or seasonal migration from forest to savanna. The first hominin specimen (G14018) was found by German palaeontologist Elisabeth Vrba in 1979, and the other two specimens were recovered in 1997 by respectively South African palaeoanthropologist Andre Keyser and excavator L. Dihasu.  At this point in time, Australian anthropologist Raymond Dart had made the very first claim (quite controversially at the time) of an early ape-like human ancestor in 1924 from South Africa, Australopithecus africanus, based on the Taung child. He also believed that they both had a massive build. extended their interpretation of the crest to the males of Paranthropus species, with the crest and resultantly larger head (at least in P. boisei) being used for some kind of display. Early hominin vertebrae are similar to those of a pathological human, including the only other 12th thoracic vertebra known for P. robustus, the juvenile SK 853.  Using this and palaeomagnetism, it may date to roughly 1.8 million years ago. , The pelvis is similar to the pelvises of A. africanus and A. afarensis, but it has a wider iliac blade and smaller acetabulum and hip joint. They were found across the entire depth of Member 3, so fire was a regular event throughout its deposition.  Member 1 and Member 3 have several mammal species in common, making dating by animal remains (biostratigraphy) yield overlapping time intervals. , Gondolin Cave has yielded 3 hominin specimens: a right third premolar assigned to early Homo (G14018), a partial left gracile australopithecine 1st or 2nd molar (GDA-1), and a robust australopithecine 2nd molar (GDA-2). Based on the average of these two regressions, he reported an average weight of 47.1 kg (104 lb) for P. robustus using the specimens SK 82 and SK 97. He also identified a distal toe phalanx which he believed belonged to a baboon, but has since been associated with TM 1517. 2.2–1.5 million years ago), possessing a small brain, small incisors and canines, and large postcanine dentition, considered a side branch of the human phylogenetic tree. By this hypothesis, a female moving out of her birth group may have spent little time alone and transferred immediately to another established group. , P. robustus also cohabited the Cradle of Humankind with H. ergaster/H. He considered this evidence that another individual had killed TM 1517 by launching the rock as a projectile in either defense or attack, but the most parsimonious explanation is that the rock was deposited during the fossilisation process after TM 1517 had died. Australopithecus africanus (Australopith) "Skull" -JK 2019  In 1983, while studying SK 1585 (P. robustus) and KNM-ER 407 (P. boisei, which he referred to as robustus), French anthropologist Roger Saban stated that the parietal branch of the middle meningeal artery originated from the posterior branch in P. robustus and P. boisei instead of the anterior branch as in earlier hominins, and considered this a derived characteristic due to increased brain capacity. In this paper, we explore whether the form of the EDJ can be used to distinguish between the mandibular molars of two southern African fossil hominins: Paranthropus (or Australopithecus) robustus and Australopithecus africanus.  The textural complexity of the kneecap SKX 1084, which reflects cartilage thickness and thus usage of the knee joint and bipedality, is midway between modern humans and chimps.  In 1972, American physical anthropologist Ralph Holloway measured the skullcap SK 1585, which is missing part of the frontal bone, and reported a volume of about 530 cc. The cavity seems to have been healing, possibly due to a change in diet or mouth microbiome, or the loss of the adjacent molar. One of these belonged to the relatively primitive species Paranthropus robustus. In addition, it may have also eaten fruits, underground storage organs (such as roots and tubers), and perhaps honey and termites. P. robustus seems to have consumed a high proportion of C4 savanna plants. - defining characteristic of hominins - fossil pelves, crania, and legs, shows evolution of bipedalism ... Paranthropus robustus (Australopith) - **SOUTH AFRICA** (only real difference between robustus and boisei) - 2.0-1.2 mya - NOT as robust as boisei. Paranthropus boisei, an early hominin that lived in East Africa between 2.3 and 1.2 million years ago, mainly ate tiger-nuts – edible bulbous tubers of … , This was soon challenged in 1974 by American palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould and English palaeoanthropologist David Pilbeam, who guessed from the available skeletal elements a much lighter weight of about 40.5 kg (89 lb). At Members 1 and 2, about 35% of the P. robustus leg or foot specimens were the same size as those in a 28 kg (62 lb) human, 22% in a 43 kg (95 lb) human, and the remaining 43% bigger than the former but less than a 54 kg (119 lb) human except for KNM‐ER 1464 (an ankle bone). It is also possible juveniles were instead less capable of removing grit from dug-up food rather than purposefully seeking out more abrasive foods. In August 1938, Broom classified the robust Kromdraai remains into a new genus as Paranthropus robustus. Specifically, we explore the extent to which first maxillary molar roots (M 1) are oriented and thus, by proxy, estimate the direction of loads habitually exerted on the chewing surface. Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". He calculated the humerus-to-femur ratio of P. robustus by using the presumed female humerus of STS 7 and comparing it with the presumed male femur of STS 14.  It was long assumed that if Paranthropus is a valid genus then P. robustus was the ancestor of P. boisei, but in 1985, anthropologists Alan Walker and Richard Leakey found that the 2.5 million year old East African skull KNM WT 17000—which they assigned to a new species A. aethiopicus—was ancestral to A. boisei (they considered Paranthropus synonymous with Australopithecus), thus establishing the boisei lineage as beginning long before robustus had existed. 2 million years ago an upright walking group of hominins roamed Africa. Paranthropus robustus is a small-brained extinct hominin that lived between 2 million and 1.2 million years ago in what is now South Africa.  In 1973, using this and an equation between foetal head size and gestation (assuming foetal growth rate of 0.6 for all mammals), biologist John Frazer estimated a gestation of 300 days for P. P. robustus is known from South Africa, while the other two species in the group (P. aethiopicus and P. boisei) are known from East Africa.  The form of P. robustus incisors appears to be intermediate between H. erectus and modern humans, which could possibly mean it did not have to regularly bite off mouthfuls of a large food item due to preparation with simple tools. , P. robustus seems to have had notably high rates of pitting enamel hypoplasia (PEH), where tooth enamel formation is spotty instead of mostly uniform. , In 1988, Brain and South African archaeologist A. Sillent analysed the 59,488 bone fragments from Swartkrans Member 3, and found that 270 had been burnt, mainly belonging to medium-sized antelope, but also zebra, warthog, baboon, and P. robustus. It is possible this reflects some arboreal activity (movement in the trees) as is controversially postulated in other australopithecines. It was also associated with the H. ergaster/H. Because the majority of sexed P. robustus specimens are male (or at least presumed male), males seem to have had a higher mortality rate than females. However, it has been argued by some that Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and synonymous with Australopithecus, so the species is also often classified as Australopithecus robustus.  The shape of the lumbar vertebrae is much more similar to that of Turkana boy (H. ergaster/H. Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, excavating new areas with groundbreaking technology, and continually filling in some of the gaps about our understanding of human evolution. The first probable bone tool was reported by Robinson in 1959 at Sterkfontein Member 5. Using these, he argued these hominins had a humanlike prolonged childhood. Males did not seem to have ventured very far from the valley, which could either indicate small home ranges, or that they preferred dolomitic landscapes due to perhaps cave abundance or factors related to vegetation growth. The intermediate phalanges are stout and straight like humans, but have stouter bases and better developed flexor impressions.  In 2012, American anthropologist Trenton Holliday, using the same equation as McHenry on 3 specimens, reported an average of 37 kg (82 lb) with a range of 30–43 kg (66–95 lb). This is similar to what was found for A. africanus and H. naledi (all three inhabited the Cradle of Humankind at different points in time).  A high cavity rate could indicate honey consumption. Nature 436, 693–695. Paranthropus robustus became the first "robust" species of hominid ever uncovered well before P. boisei and P. aethiopicus. In P. robustus, about 47% of baby teeth and 14% of adult teeth were affected, in comparison to about 6.7% and 4.3% respectively for the combined teeth of A. africanus, A. sediba, early Homo, and H. naledi.  Like modern humans, the ilium of P. robustus features development of the surface and thickening of the posterior superior iliac spine, which are important in stabilising the sacrum, and indicates lumbar lordosis (curvature of the lumbar vertebrae) and thus bipedalism. The brain volume of the specimen SK 1585 is estimated to have been 476 cc, and of DNH 155 about 450 cc (for comparison, the brain volume of contemporary Homo varied from 500–900 cc). Paranthropus robustus (лат., буквально — массивный парантроп) — вид ископаемых высших приматов, обнаруженный в Южной Африке в 1938 году южноафриканским доктором и палеонтологом Робертом Брумом. Paranthropus robustus is a species of robust australopithecine from the Early and possibly Middle Pleistocene of the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, about 2 to 1 or 0.6 million years ago. Measuring the distance between the alveolar bone and the cementoenamel junction, P. robustus possibly suffered from a higher rate of tooth-attachment loss, unless P. robustus had a higher cervical height (the slightly narrowed area where the crown meets the root) in which case these two species had the same rate of tooth-attachment loss. Science 314, 980-982.  It has since been demonstrated that, at least for P. boisei, the parietal branch could originate from either the anterior or posterior branches, sometimes both in a single specimen on opposite sides of the skull. Paranthropus robustus Gikan sa Wikipedia, ang gawasnong ensiklopedya Ang Paranthropus robustus usa ka species sa australopithecine gikan sa Sayo ug posible nga Middle Pleistocene sa Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, mga 2 hangtod 1 o 0.6 milyon ka tuig ang nakalabay. , Given the marked anatomical and physical differences with modern great apes, there may be no modern analogue for australopithecine societies, so comparisons drawn with modern primates are highly speculative. The skulls of males have a well-defined sagittal crest on the midline of the skullcap and inflated cheek bones, which likely supported massive temporal muscles important in biting. In Paranthropus, this may have functioned to thicken the palate. robustus. In 1988, palaeoanthropologist Ronald J. Clarke suggested StW 505 from the earlier Member 4 was an ancestor to P. robustus. Based on this, he concluded babies were birthed at intervals of 3 to 4 years using a statistical test to maximise the number of children born.  Four femora assigned to P. robustus—SK 19, SK 82, SK 97, and SK 3121—exhibit an apparently high anisotropic trabecular bone (at the hip joint) structure, which could indicate reduced mobility of the hip joint compared to non-human apes, and the ability to produce forces consistent with humanlike bipedalism. Broadly speaking, the emergence of the first permanent molar in early hominins has been variously estimated anywhere from 2.5–4.5 years, which all contrast markedly with the modern human average of 5.8 years. Found in a hilltop cave, the oldest known Homo erectus and Paranthropus robustus fossils shed light on a critical period of hominin evolution.  The appearance of the baboon Theropithecus oswaldi, zebras, lions, ostriches, springhares, and several grazing antelope in Member 5 indicates the predominance of open grasslands, but sediment analysis indicates the cave opening was moist during deposition, which could point to a well-watered wooded grassland. The ramus of the jawbone, which connects the lower jaw to the upper jaw, is tall, which would have increased lever arm (and thereby, torque) of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles (both important in biting down), further increasing bite force. Because of this, the predominant model of Paranthropus extinction for the latter half of the 20th century was that they were unable to adapt to the volatile climate of the Pleistocene, unlike the much more adaptable Homo.  Anthropologists Sherwood Washburn and Bruce D. Patterson were the first to recommend synonymising Paranthropus with Australopithecus in 1951, wanting to limit hominin genera to only that and Homo, and it has since been debated whether or not Paranthropus is a junior synonym of Australopithecus.  Broom noted the Kromdraai remains were especially robust compared to other hominins. In a harem society, males are more likely to be evicted from the group given higher male–male competition over females, and lone males may have been put at a higher risk of predation. Important fossil discoveries. erectus. Because the chewing muscles are arranged the same way, Walker postulated that the heavy build was instead an adaptation to chew a large quantity of food at the same time. Based on just these three, he reported an average height of 132 cm (4 ft 4 in) for P. robustus males and 110 cm (3 ft 7 in) for females. Traditional methods of dietary reconstruction do not allow the investigation of dietary variability within the lifetimes of individual hominins. , Based on a sample of 402 teeth, P. robustus seems to have had a low incidence rate of about 12–16% for tertiary dentin, which forms to repair tooth damage caused by excessive wearing or dental cavities. Paranthropus robustus belongs to a group that represents a side branch of the human family tree. Die Körperform der Art ähnelt derjenigen von Australopithecus africanus, jedoch besaß Paranthropus robustus einen größeren, kräftigeren Schädel sowie massivere Zähne und wird daher gelegentlich auch robuster Australopithecus genannt. Most immediate reactions favoured synonymising "T. capensis" with "P. crassidens", whose remains were already abundantly found in the cave. Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species dietary variability in fossil hominins. They were bipedal and probably lived 2.7 million years ago. After exploring Kromdraai, South Africa, the site where the curious fossils came from, Broom collected many more bones and teeth that together convinced him he had a new species which he named Paranthropus robustus (Paranthropus meaning “beside man”).  A molar from Drimolen showed a cavity on the tooth root, a rare occurrence in fossil great apes. However, laser ablation stable isotope analysis reveals that the δ 13 C values of Paranthropus robustus individuals often changed seasonally and interannually. , Upon describing the species, Broom estimated the fragmentary braincase of TM 1517 as 600 cc, and he, along with South African anthropologist Gerrit Willem Hendrik Schepers, revised this to 575–680 cc in 1946.  Despite subsequent arguments that Paranthropus were not specialist feeders, the predominant consensus in favour of Robinson's initial model did not change for the remainder of the 20th century.  In addition, these two species resided alongside Australopithecus sediba which is known from about 2 million years ago at Malapa. Homo possibly was able to survive by inhabiting a much larger geographical range, more likely to find a suitable refuge area during unfavourable climate swings. From 1940s through 1970s, lots of debate whether this species represented the males of Au. robustus.  P. robustus likely also commonly cracked hard foods such as seeds or nuts, as it had a moderate tooth-chipping rate (about 12% in a sample of 239 individuals, as opposed to little to none for P. This contrasts with East African bone tools which appear to have been modified and directly cut into specific shapes before using. , Few vertebrae are assigned to P. robustus. In order for cavity-creating bacteria to reach this area, the individual would have also presented either alveolar resportion, which is commonly associated with gum disease; or super-eruption of the tooth which occurs when it becomes worn down and has to erupt a bit more in order to maintain a proper bite, exposing the root in the process. Similarly, male gorillas complete dental development about the same time as females, but continue growing for up to 5 or 6 years; and male mandrills complete dental development before females, but continue growing for several years more. All of the _____ hominins were capable of tool use and none should be ruled out as tool makers -- despite having ape-sized brains!-Pliocene. "The dentition of the Transvaal Pleistocene anthropoids, "Hominin Taxonomy and Phylogeny: What's In A Name? For comparison, chimp jaws are generally depository reflecting prognathism, and modern humans resorptive reflecting a flat face. palaeojavanicus".  The femoral head StW 311, which either belongs to P. robustus or early Homo, seems to have habitually been placed in highly flexed positions based on the wearing patterns, which would be consistent with frequent climbing activity. Like humans, jaw robustness decreased with age, though it decreased slower in P. KB 6067, therefore, may possibly be basal to (more ancient than) other P. robustus specimens, at least those for which ear morphology is known. Traditional methods of dietary reconstruction do not allow the investigation of dietary variability within the lifetimes of individual hominins. A total of 31 specimens representing at least 17 individuals have been recovered. Based on colour and structural changes, they found that 46 were heated to below 300 °C (572 °F), 52 to 300–400 °C (572–752 °F), 45 to 400–500 °C (752–932 °F), and 127 above this. The other fossil hominins used for comparison with P. boisei include Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus, both from the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. , The Pleistocene Cradle of Humankind was mainly dominated by the springbok Antidorcas recki, but other antelope, giraffes, and elephants were also seemingly abundant megafauna. Since circular holes in enamel coverage are uniform in size, only present on the molar teeth, and have the same severity across individuals, the PEH may have been a genetic condition. † Paranthropus robustus The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus, were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). , As an antipredator behaviour, baboons often associate themselves with medium-to-large herbivores, most notably impalas, and it is possible that P. robustus as well as other early hominins which lived in open environments did so also, given they are typically associated with an abundance of medium-to-large bovid and horse remains.  Modern humans which suffer from spinal disc herniation often have vertebrae that are more similar to those of chimps than healthy humans. “Paranthropus robustus” evolved sturdier skulls to be able to eat new, tough vegetation . Robust australopithecines—as opposed to gracile australopithecines—are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forces, as well as inflated cheek teeth (molars and premolars).  In 1972, after estimating a foetal size of 1,230–1,390 g (2.7–3.1 lb) based on an adult female weight of 50 kg (110 lb), anthropologist Walter Leutenegger estimated foetal head size at about 110–160 cc (6.7–9.8 cu in), similar to a chimp. Specimens include a crushed partial right face (COB 101), 3 isolated teeth, a juvenile jawbone, and several skull fragments. robustus.  In 1981, English anthropologist Alan Walker, while studying the P. boisei skulls KNM-ER 406 and 729, pointed out that bite force is a measure of not only the total pressure exerted but also the surface area of the tooth over which the pressure is being exerted, and Paranthropus teeth are 4–5 times the size of modern human teeth. In modern apes (including humans), dental development trajectory is strongly correlated with life history and overall growth rate, but it is possible that early hominins simply had a faster dental trajectory but a slower life history due to environmental factors, such as early weaning age as is exemplified in modern indriid lemurs. Comparing the ratio to humans, he concluded that P. robustus was a heavily-built species with a height of 140–150 cm (4 ft 7 in–4 ft 11 in) and a weight of 68–91 kg (150–201 lb). Consequently, Robinson had described its locomotory habits as, "a compromise between erectness and facility for quadrupedal climbing."  In 1991, McHenry expanded his sample size, and also estimated the living size of Swartkrans specimens by scaling down the dimensions of an average modern human to meet a preserved leg or foot element (he considered the arm measurements too variable among hominins to give accurate estimates). , While growing, the front part of the jaw in P. robustus is depository (so it grows) whereas the sides are resorptive (so they recede). This would mean that, like chimps, they often inhabited areas with an average diurnal temperature of 25 °C (77 °F), dropping to 10 or 5 °C (50 or 41 °F) at night. , In 2007, anthropologist Charles Lockwood and colleagues pointed out that P. robustus appears to have had pronounced sexual dimorphism, with males notably larger than females. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Adventures in the Rift Valley: Interactive, Digital Archive of Ungulate and Carnivore Dentition, Teaching Evolution through Human Examples, Members Thoughts on Science, Religion & Human Origins (video), Science, Religion, Evolution and Creationism: Primer, Burin from Laugerie Haute & Basse, Dordogne, France, Butchered Animal Bones from Gona, Ethiopia, Neanderthal Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA. Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus) is an early hominin, originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938.  Further, the remains were not firmly dated, and it was debated if there were indeed multiple hominin lineages or if there was only a single one leading to humans. Are extinct hominins robustus experienced more anterior face rotation than modern humans ( less efficient gait.. Of time spent upright compared to non-human apes specimens had light microwear, with males substantially larger and robust. 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