https://quizlet.com/351638443/human-evolution-final-flash-cards The australopithecines occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene era and were bipedal , and they were dentally similar to humans, but with a brain size not much larger than that of modern apes , with lesser encephalization than in the genus Homo . This individual is a current proponent of the Multiregional Hypothesis: The best evidence supporting the Multiregional hypothesis comes from: The skeleton of Ardipithecus ramidus ("Ardi") is how old? This person was the first to discover a bone from Ardi's skeleton:_________. There are … ... the earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than . A few experts consider ''boisei'' and ''robustus'' to be variants of the same species. As a result, the poles of the transition are frequently attached to taxa (e.g. Evidence from the Nariokotome boy suggests that modern human growth patterns were already present in Homo erectus. These fossils were assigned to Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus (Arambourg and Coppens, 1968), now recognized as Australopithecus or Paranthropus aethiopicus . Australopithecus garhi has been proposed as an ancestor for Homo mainly because: it had longer legs relative to arm length than other australopithecines. because the basal clades of both lineages ... referred to as the “ robust ” australopithecines) and. Some archaic Homo sapiens specimens resemble Homo erectus in having: a long, low cranial shape with large supraorbital tori. The robust variety of Australopithecus has since been reclassified as Paranthropus, although it is still regarded as a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Since first introduced by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1700s, standard taxonomic practice has assigned a genus and a species designation to each distinctive organism studied. In addition to the post-cranial skeleton of Ardipithecus that reflects bipedalism which other trait does the author find to be of great importnace in undertsanding the origins of hominids. These two lineages are represented in the fossil record by specimens assigned to, Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus afarensis. b. they were much taller than their ancestors. ... are present only in some platyrrhines. https://quizlet.com/350717829/human-evolution-final-exam-flash-cards Study Flashcards On chpt 10 test at Cram.com. In which of these periods did the hominoid apes flourish and exhibit great diversity? In the 1930s, when the robust specimens were first described, the Paranthropus genus was used. There is but a single difference: “australopithecines” are now referred to as “australopiths.” The old and new schemes are given in Table 1 (adapted from Wood and Richmond, 2000). Australopithecines - Essay Example. ... claim for a dispersal are some disputed stone tools. The species Australopithecus africanus and it's associated "osteodontokeratic" (bone, teeth and horns) tools/culture complex. Later, it was decided that the skull was actually an Australopithecus africanus individual and there is also some debate about whether this skull was that of a female or male. In this image taken from our discussion of models of human evolution, what does the item numbered 4 represent? Using the then new potassium-argon dating method, the fossil was determined to be 1.75 ± .25 million years old. Dmanisi is located in southern Georgia, about 85 kilometres (52.8 miles) from the country's capital, Tbilisi.It was founded as a city in the Middle Ages and has thus been a site of archaeological interest for some time, with a prominent archaeological excavation site being located within the ruins of the old city on a promontory overlooking the Mashavera and … The australopithecine lineage went extinct about: Which hominin has the largest molar teeth? Formerly known as the australopithecines, they are not a “natural” group, in that they do not represent all of the descendants of a single common ancestor (i.e., they are not a “clade”). The oldest POSSIBLE hominid found to date has been given the genus name, The earliest hominid tools thus far discovered are made of. The first person to describe and classify an australopithecine fossil was. Kenyanthropus platyops has an unusually flat face (platyops means "flat face"). They lived between approximately 2.6 and 0.6 million years ago (mya) from the end of the Pliocene to the Middle Pleistocene . The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Some characteristics that have distinguished hominins from other primates, ... Members of Australopithecus are sometimes referred to as the gracile australopithecines, while Paranthropus are called the "robust australopithecines". Which of the following species is a good candidate for being directly ancestral to Australopithecus afarensis? In South Africa, fossil-bearing geological deposits are composed of: "All living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa nearly two million-years-ago" This statement reflects the position of: Australopithecus garhi has been proposed as a likely ancestor for Homo habilis. H. habilis, "handy man", was so called because of evidence of tools found with its remains. Paranthropus is thought to have lived in wooded areas rather than the grasslands of the Australopithecus. They also had more massive teeth, suitable for a rough diet of leaves and other plants. referred to as the “ robust ” australopithecines) and. Because the large named emissary veins pass through observable foramina and venous sinuses leave traces that are imprinted within the braincase, cranial blood flow has been studied in three genera of fossil hominins (Paranthropus, Australopithecus, and early Homo).Fossils of so-called robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) date from approximately 2.5 to 1.0 Ma and are … In this image from our last discussion of human origins which of the numbered sections refer to the key result of adaptations that allowed a K-selected human ancestor to compete successfully with r-selected primates? During the 1960s, the robust variety was moved into Australopithecus. However, the term "robust" applies only to the skull and not features of the postcranial skeleton. (From your text book) The fraudulent Piltdown specimens that delayed the Taung Child's recognition as a hominid were discovered in. The human pelvis is a remarkable structure that plays a central role in many critical biological processes, most notably bipedal locomotion, thermoregulation and parturition (childbirth). Because of the fragile condition of the fossilized bones of Ardi they would crumble on touch, leading Tim White to call them:_____? … Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" because a. their cranial capacity had increased dramatically. According to this article summary, the adoption of bipedalism by Ardipithecus: was likely due to increased reproductive success. (1980), Harrison (1993), and Strait et al. (1997), who referred them to the genus and species Praeanthropus africanus, though for reasons outlined in Groves (1999), Strait (2001), and Strait and Grine (2001), the species should … The robust australopithecines had a diet likely composed mostly of. In East Africa two distinct lineages of hominid co-existed for at least a million years. The australopithecines have been referred to collectively as gracile species (literally "gracefully slender") of early hominins. C. they were probably much harrier than their anc. Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. A third species of “robust” australopithecine is also known from East Africa, dating back to discoveries in the Omo River valley in Ethiopia during the 1960s. 14. They are also referred to as the robust australopithecines. Australopithecus is sometimes referred to as the "gracile (slender) australopithecines", while Paranthropus are also called the "robust australopithecines". "Lucy" is assigned to this genus/species: The earliest stone tools are approximately________years old. The robust species are often attributed to the genus Paranthropus (although some researchers retain them in Australopithecus) and generally have more massive jaws, crania, and molar and premolar (cheek) teeth than the gracile species, but all australopiths have more heavily built skulls than living apes. Cameron's taxonomic scheme supports the generic distinction of the Hadar and Laetoli Pliocene hominins from Australopithecus. Others interpret the taxon more inclusively and include fossil evidence that is generally older and less distinctive (e.g., Steinheim, Swanscombe, and from the Sima de los Huesos). B. Paranthropus is characterised by robust skulls, with a prominent gorilla -like sagittal crest along the midline–which suggest strong chewing muscles–and broad, herbivorous teeth used for … 516 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [ 76,1974 placed together in respective “lineages” by some authorities (e.g., Pilbeam 1972; Pilbeam and Zwell 1973).Finds from East Rudolph, Kenya (Leakey, Mungai, and Walker 1972; Leakey and Walker 1973) and from the Omo Basin, Ethiopia (Howell 1969) have been assigned gracile and robust categories (e.g., Buettner-Janusch 1973), but it may be premature A major shift by Homo habilis to new environments was characterized by . Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" because: they possessed very large molar teeth and chewing muscles. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. NOTE: Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus are known as gracile australopithecines, because of their relatively lighter build, especially in the skull and teeth. Paranthropus robustus is a species of robust australopithecine from the Early and possibly Middle Pleistocene of the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, about 2 to 1 or 0.6 million years ago.It has been identified in Kromdraai, Swartkrans, Sterkfontein, Gondolin, Cooper's, and Drimolen Caves. Other genera: Kenyanthropus (3.5 to 3.2) mya is either a separate genus of australos, or a species of Australopithecus. This partly follows Day et al. The face is still primitive, but it projects less than in A. africanus. Except for specialists, the new taxonomy hardly affects the australopithecines. Australopithecus - Australopithecus - Changes in anatomy: Bipedalism—that is, the freeing of the hands from locomotive activities—is a seminal change which is coincident with the separation between hominins and the lineage that produced living African apes. Chimpanzees B. Gracile australopithecines C. Robust australopithecines. The australopiths are a group of early hominins (humans and their close extinct relatives) that lived in Africa between approximately 4.1 and 1.4 million years ago. Each of these processes is essential enough to survival and reproductive success as to be under strong pressure from natural selection [1–4]. Some investigators consider the phenomenon of allometry responsible for certain morphological characteristics of the skeleton of the robust australopithecines. Paranthropus is characterised by robust skulls, with a prominent gorilla -like sagittal crest along the midline–which suggest strong chewing muscles–and broad, herbivorous teeth used for grinding. They are called 'robust' because the morphology of their heads shows large muscle attachments. They are also referred to as the robust australopithecines. Although the transition from Australopithecus to Homo is usually thought of as a momentous transformation, the fossil record bearing on the origin and earliest evolution of Homo is virtually undocumented. Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" because: they possessed very large molar teeth and chewing muscles. In Australopithecus: Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei.Australopithecus robustus and A. boisei are also referred to as robust australopiths. In addition to a well-developed skull crest for the attachment of the temporalis (or temporal muscle, which is used in chewing), other specializations for strong chewing include huge cheek teeth, massive jaws, and powerfully built … Get the plugin now. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! The holotype specimen, OH 5, was discovered by palaeoanthropologist Mary Leakey in 1959, and described by her husband Louis a month later. Colobine primates: have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves. Some australopithecines are referred to as "robust" or placed into the genus Paranthropus because of a large sagittal crest, flaring zygomatics (cheek bones), and large molar teeth. Australopithecus and Paranthropus also Because the large named emissary veins pass through observable foramina and venous sinuses leave traces that are imprinted within the braincase, cranial blood flow has been studied in three genera of fossil hominins (Paranthropus, Australopithecus, and early Homo).Fossils of so-called robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) date from approximately 2.5 to 1.0 Ma and are known from South … Degree of individuality among males and females. super robust species of australopithecines. In this image taken from our discussion of models of human origins what does the section labelled 2 refer to? Which of the following does the author of the article, and your instructor, think can reasonably be inferred from the skeleton of Ardipithecus? Remove this presentation Flag as Inappropriate I Don't Like This I like this Remember as a Favorite. Geography: Like their predecessors, Robust Australopiths, were restricted to Africa. Paranthropus. 4mya. There was some size variation between the different species of Paranthropus, but most stood roughly 1.3-1.4 m (4.26 to 4.59 feet) tall and were quite well muscled. This was a startlingly early date when it was made public over four decades ago. Australopithecus (/ ˌ ɒ s t r ə l ə ˈ p ɪ θ ɪ k ə s /, OS-trə-lə-PITH-i-kəs; from Latin australis 'southern', and Greek πίθηκος (pithekos) 'ape'; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene.The genera Homo (which includes modern humans), Paranthropus, and Kenyanthropus evolved from Australopithecus. 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