Pris entre deux feux, Richard et sa garde rapprochée sont tués, et ses hommes se dispersent. Accounts note that King Richard fought bravely and ably during this manoeuvre, unhorsing Sir John Cheyne, a well-known jousting champion, killing Henry's standard bearer Sir William Brandon and coming within a sword's length of Henry Tudor before being surrounded by Sir William Stanley's men and killed. [59][60] It was in Edward's attempt to regain his throne that Richard began to demonstrate his skill as a military commander. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward V's coronation on 22 June 1483. ), K.G. Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work. La pièce Richard III, œuvre de jeunesse de William Shakespeare, contribue à ancrer cette image, avec un personnage-titre particulièrement complexe, qui a notamment été interprété au cinéma par Laurence Olivier, Ian McKellen et Al Pacino. En 2015, Thomas Jolly entreprend la création de Richard III, qui clôt sa série shakesperienne. [28] The date of Paston's letter suggests the marriage was still being negotiated in February 1472. Richard, Duke of Gloucester may refer to: Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester (born 1944) Richard III of England (1483–1485), Duke of Gloucester prior to his accession to the throne This disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name. [85], Richard's increasing role in the north from the mid-1470s to some extent explains his withdrawal from the royal court. They entered the city on 4 May, displaying the carriages of weapons Rivers had taken with his 2000-man army. Therefore, the princes were not legitimate heirs to the throne. Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb. They participated in the coronation of their eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. of their marriage being declared null and void by the Church) and then legally remarried to each other, and also protected Richard's rights while waiting for such a valid second marriage with Anne. L'homme est mort de nombreuses blessures à la tête, mais aucune n'a été causée sur son visage même, ce qui permet aux scientifiques de reconstituer ce visage qu'aucun portrait contemporain n'a représenté[30]. She had left both her small son and and home at Middleham to join her husband, who had been staying until then, with his mother at Baynards Castle, and on her arrival they would have had much to catch up on covering the drastic events which had taken place since she had last seen Richard. '[206], Richard's death encouraged the furtherance of this later negative image by his Tudor successors due to the fact that it helped to legitimise Henry VII's seizure of the throne. Its a classic tale of everyday treachery and self-interest on all sides. Warwick est alors considéré comme le stratège le plus habile d'Angleterre. [72] Richard's was the largest private contingent of his army. He is the second son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, as well as the youngest grandchild of King George V … Richard, Duke of Gloucester (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485), crowned King Richard III in 1483, was the sixth son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and brother of King Edward IV of England, who had seized the throne from the reigning Lancastrian king, Henry VI. Le 4 septembre 2013, la publication d'une étude réalisée par le Dr Piers D Mitchell, du département d'archéologie et d'anthropologie de l'université de Cambridge, révèle que Richard III était atteint d'ascaridiose[32]. Beaucoup parmi les révoltés sont d'anciens fidèles d'Édouard IV, choqués par le sort réservé à ses fils. In the words of Charles Ross, "the later fifteenth century in England is now seen as a ruthless and violent age as concerns the upper ranks of society, full of private feuds, intimidation, land-hunger, and litigiousness, and consideration of Richard's life and career against this background has tended to remove him from the lonely pinnacle of Villainy Incarnate on which Shakespeare had placed him. Pour justifier cette appropriation de la couronne, l'évêque de Bath et Wells, Robert Stillington, affirme le 22 juin qu'Édouard se serait engagé auprès d'Éléonore Talbot avant de contracter un mariage avec Élisabeth Woodville ; cet engagement, s'il est avéré, rend le roi coupable de bigamie, et invalide donc à la fois son mariage avec Élisabeth et les prétentions de ses descendants sur le trône. [note 1] While at Warwick's estate, it is likely that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter later in his life, and Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. For the grandson of George V of the United Kingdom, see, The earliest surviving portrait of Richard. Le 23 mars 2015, le cardinal Vincent Nichols, archevêque catholique de Westminster, célèbre sa messe de requiem au prieuré de la Sainte-Croix de Leicester, puis, le 26 mars 2015, la cérémonie nationale est célébrée par l'archevêque de Canterbury, Justin Welby, primat de l'Église anglicane, en présence de descendants de Richard III — dont Richard de Gloucester, également cousin de la Reine, et l'acteur Benedict Cumberbatch, qui lit un poème en hommage à son aïeul — et des membres de la famille royale. On 25 June, an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king. The Haute family was related to the Woodvilles through the marriage of Elizabeth Woodville's aunt, Joan Woodville, to William Haute. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king,[16] while Richard remained loyal to Edward, even though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. La pièce est jouée par sa troupe, la Piccola Familia. In 1470 one of his supporters, the Earl of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker' changed allegiance with the support of Edward's brother, George, Duke of Clarence. Craignant pour sa sécurité, la reine-mère s'est quant à elle enfermée en l'abbaye de Westminster (un sanctuaire) avec ses autres enfants[12]. [290][291] The Plantagenet Alliance, and the supporting fifteen collateral descendants, also faced the challenge that "Basic maths shows Richard, who had no surviving children but five siblings, could have millions of 'collateral' descendants"[288] undermining the group's claim to represent "the only people who can speak on behalf of him". De plus, les Tudor ont tenté de discréditer Richard III et d'assombrir sa réputation, afin d'asseoir leur propre légitimité. King of England from 1483. [285] The team announced that the "arrowhead" discovered with the body was a Roman-era nail, probably disturbed when the body was first interred. Édouard IV meurt le 9 avril 1483, à l'âge de 41 ans. [175] He died in 1550. [217], Richard's reputation as a promoter of legal fairness persisted, however. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. 147: The Government of the Realm . Joining her were her son by her first marriage, Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset; her five daughters; and her youngest son, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. "[234] The Richard III Society, founded in 1924 as "The Fellowship of the White Boar", is the oldest of several groups dedicated to improving his reputation. Today is the anniversary of Berwick changing hands between the English and the Scots for the thirteenth and last time, falling to Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later Richard III) on August 24th, 1482. [120] Indeed, Davies has suggested that it was "only the subsequent parliamentary attainder that placed Buckingham at the centre of events", in order to blame a single disaffected magnate motivated by greed, rather than "the embarrassing truth" that those opposing Richard were actually "overwhelmingly Edwardian loyalists". [189], Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in 1154. Celui-ci apprend la mort de son frère vers le 15 avril. '[220][221], Despite this, the image of Richard as a ruthless power-grabber remained dominant in the 18th and 19th centuries. L'événement crucial est la trahison de Lord Stanley, jusqu'alors resté en retrait. [167] This has led to a suggestion by the historian A. L. Rowse that Richard "had no interest in sex". Conflict between Gloucester and the Woodville nobles who dominated Edward V soon led the duke to arrest the leaders of the Woodville party and secure possession of Edward and his younger brother. Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of 10.5 centimetres (4.1 in). [319], "Richard III" redirects here. Buckingham tried to escape in disguise, but was either turned in by a retainer for the bounty Richard had put on his head, or was discovered in hiding with him. Titles . He gained entry to York by using the same claim as Henry of Bolingbroke had before deposing Richard II in 1399; that is, that he was merely reclaiming the Dukedom of York rather than the crown. In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the king's brothers (, Says Kendall, "Richard had won his way back to Middleham Castle". They departed Flushing for England on 11 March 1471. Richard, Duke of Gloucester was a man who seemed to have the world at his feet. He also argued that any physical abnormality was probably no more than a minor distortion of the shoulders. Du point de vue des historiens, les travaux de Paul Murray Kendall dans les années 1970, et la publication de sa biographie Richard III, ont permis de reconsidérer le règne. Richard rode a white courser. [153] The exact location was then lost, owing to more than 400 years of subsequent development,[156] until archaeological investigations in 2012 revealed the site of the garden and Greyfriars Church. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. "From November 1461 until 1465 all references to Richard place him in locations south of the river Trent. Richard et Anne passent le plus clair de leur temps dans le Nord, principalement à Barnard Castle, Sheriff Hutton et Middleham. Malgré la clémence dont fait preuve Richard dans la répression, cette rébellion témoigne de son impuissance à rallier autour de sa personne les partisans traditionnels de la maison d'York[16]. Edward and his youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, fled to the Low Countries and Son jeune âge rend la mise en place d'une régence obligatoire, mais sa nature est source de débats : les Woodville souhaitent que le jeune Édouard soit immédiatement couronné, même s'il ne gouvernera le royaume qu'en nom jusqu'à sa majorité, tandis que Lord Hastings, chambellan du roi défunt, propose de nommer le duc de Gloucester protecteur du royaume. [100], On 10/11 June, Richard wrote to Ralph, Lord Neville, the City of York and others asking for their support against "the Queen, her blood adherents and affinity," whom he suspected of plotting his murder. Après avoir été nommé régent du royaume à la mort soudaine de son frère, Richard s'empare du trône au détriment de ses neveux Édouard V et Richard de Shrewsbury, qu'il fait déclarer illégitimes et enfermer à la tour de Londres, dont ils ne ressortent jamais. [96] He proceeded to escort the king to London. [157], According to another tradition, Richard consulted a seer in Leicester before the battle who foretold that "where your spur should strike on the ride into battle, your head shall be broken on the return". », « après avoir régné dans une Angleterre déchirée par la guerre, c'est donc par une nation apaisée que le roi Richard III a été accompagné vers sa dernière demeure, en s'emparant de la ville frontalière de Berwick-upon-Tweed, Le roi Richard III réhabilité après cinq siècles d'infamies, Le Point, 24.03.2015, « Sous un parking, les restes de Richard III », « University of Leicester - First academic paper on the discovery of Richard III published.», « Le squelette de Richard III a été authentifié », Le squelette trouvé sous un parking est celui de... Richard III, « Le squelette de Richard III identifié », « Richard III: The twisted bones that reveal a king », « Face of Richard III revealed for first time », http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2961757-2/fulltext, http://fr.radiovaticana.va/news/2015/03/26/langleterre_rend_hommage_au_roi_richard_iii,_d%C3%A9c%C3%A9d%C3%A9_en_1485/1132452, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_III&oldid=176933416, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Article de Wikipédia avec notice d'autorité, Portail:Biographie/Articles liés/Politique, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Au mois d'octobre, Buckingham prend les armes contre Richard, tandis qu'Henri se prépare à débarquer sur la côte sud du pays, mais la rébellion tourne court : le duc est capturé et exécuté le 2 novembre, la flotte d'Henri est contrainte à faire demi-tour à cause d'un orage, et les autres meneurs s'enfuient de l'autre côté de la Manche. This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence,[284] soil analysis, and dental tests (there were some molars missing as a result of caries), as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance. This was the last time they ever saw each other, although they continued to correspond. Le nouveau connétable participe à l'écrasement des révoltes suscitées par Warwick et contribue, par son soutien militaire et politique, au rétablissement d'Édouard après sa capture à la bataille d'Edgecote Moor. [165][6] Katherine's burial place was located in the London parish church of St James Garlickhithe,[note 6] between Skinner's Lane and Upper Thames Street. C'est par cette pièce que Richard III, un roi de la fin du Moyen Âge qui n'a pas régné deux ans, a acquis une grande part de sa notoriété : elle a aussi largement contribué à la diffusion de la légende noire du roi usurpateur, meurtrier, tyrannique et fou. The first four creations were in the Peerage of England and the last in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the current creation carries with it the subsidiary titles of Earl of Ulster and Baron Culloden. Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the North. On the ride into battle, his spur struck the bridge stone of Bow Bridge in the city; legend states that as his corpse was carried from the battle over the back of a horse, his head struck the same stone and was broken open. In 1483, he was surprisingly seized and executed without trial for treason by Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later Richard III). Buck attacked the "improbable imputations and strange and spiteful scandals" related by Tudor writers, including Richard's alleged deformities and murders. [230] Other defenders of Richard include the noted explorer Clements Markham, whose Richard III: His Life and Character (1906) replied to the work of Gairdner. [12], It is possible that even at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters, Isabel and Anne: young aristocrats were often sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners,[13] as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. [129] Richard made overtures to Landais, offering military support for Landais's weak regime under Francis II, Duke of Brittany, in exchange for Henry. Richard was created Duke of York in May 1474. Le 23 mars 2015, de nombreux habitants de Leicester, ainsi que de nombreuses personnes venues de toute l'Angleterre, suivent la procession qui mène son cercueil du champ de bataille de Bosworth jusqu'à la cathédrale de Leicester. In 1470 one of his supporters, the Earl of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker' changed allegiance with the support of Edward's brother, George, Duke of Clarence. Georges et Richard ne passent que quelques mois à l'étranger : Édouard triomphe des Lancastriens à Towton en mars 1461, ce qui ouvre la voie à l'accession au trône de la maison d'York. Richard had been loyal throughout to his brother Edward IV including the events of 1470-71, Edward's exile and their brother's rebellion (the Duke of Clarence, who was executed in 1478 by drowning, reputedly in a barrel of Malmsey wine). Richard, Duke of Gloucester ordered the brothers demise. [84] It is considered to have greatly improved conditions for northern England, as it was intended to keep the peace and punish lawbreakers, as well as resolving land disputes. The identity of the informant, known only through the memoirs of French diplomat Philippe de Commines, was Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells. [111] Other culprits have been suggested, including Buckingham and even Henry VII, although Richard remains a suspect. [174] The mysterious Richard Plantagenet, who was first mentioned in Francis Peck's Desiderata Curiosa (a two-volume miscellany published 1732–1735) was said to be a possible illegitimate child of Richard III and is sometimes referred to as "Richard the Master-Builder" or "Richard of Eastwell", but it has also been suggested he could have been Richard, Duke of York, one of the missing Princes in the Tower. Après ces événements, Édouard IV octroie à Richard une partie des terres de Warwick, tué à Barnet, notamment les châteaux de Middleham, Penrith, Barnard (en) et Sheriff Hutton, et le nomme Gardien des Marches de l'Ouest. Pollard, North-Eastern England during the Wars of the Roses, Oxford 1990, ch. Richard had been loyal throughout to his brother Edward IV including the events of 1470-71, Edward's exile and their brother's rebellion (the Duke of Clarence, who was executed in 1478 by drowning, reputedly in a barrel of Malmsey wine). Until 24 August 1482, when he made himself king of England, written during Henry VII had secretly the! Toutefois, Richard signe une trêve avec le roi fait son entrée Londres. D'Anciens fidèles d'Édouard IV le 28 juin troubled by the historian A. L. Rowse that Richard `` no. Argued that Henry VII, although Richard remains a mystery: they were the last years of IV. 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