The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium (specifically in the German-speaking Community), and a national language in Namibia. Official revisions of some of the rules from 1901 were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of 1996 was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries. [9] This was a period of significant expansion of the geographical territory occupied by Germanic tribes, and consequently of the number of German speakers. It’s a bit different from English, where the vowel a in the English word cat is short whereas the a in farmer is long. When it comes to travel, Germans are world champions. [15] Nevertheless, even with the influence of Luther's Bible as an unofficial written standard, a widely accepted standard for written German did not appear until the middle of the eighteenth century.[16]. A proper use of the long s (langes s), ſ, is essential for writing German text in Fraktur typefaces. Over the years, English has been influenced by and adopted words from various languages, and today, it contains words from hundreds of different languages. German (Deutsch, pronounced [dɔʏtʃ] (listen))[nb 4] is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über. "wonder child": child prodigy, whiz kid, lit. The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances. According to calculations by Ulrich Ammon, an expert on German language, this is how many people around the globe have learned German at some time in their lives. Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality. Furthermore, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states: nearly every household possessed a copy. "game / play": sales pitch / lengthy speech with the intent to persuade, lit. diphthongization of certain vowel sounds: hus (OHG "house")→haus (MHG), and weakening of unstressed short vowels to schwa [ə]: taga (OHG "days")→tage (MHG)).[10]. The Deutsches Wörterbuch (German Dictionary) initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over 330,000 headwords in its first edition. In total, seven inflectional endings (not counting plural markers) exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e. In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence (Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen. The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts. In Brazil, the largest concentrations of German speakers are in the states of Rio Grande do Sul (where Riograndenser Hunsrückisch developed), Santa Catarina and Espírito Santo.[41]. [citation needed]. In some older dictionaries or indexes, initial Sch and St are treated as separate letters and are listed as separate entries after S, but they are usually treated as S+C+H and S+T. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. There are also online opportunities offered by Deutsche Welle, the Goethe-Institut or Deutsch-Uni online. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, and Liechtenstein. The largest cities in the Franconian Central German area are Cologne and Frankfurt. The basis for the calculations is a huge databank collecte from a pool of factual and literary texts in the equivalent of 40,000 books. (Chinese is famously ending-free). Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian German is officially used in the Austrian education system. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific distinction between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. [citation needed][71] The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan, but they abolished them in 1941, claiming that these letters were Jewish. German is written in the Latin alphabet. However, it's not the only super long word in the German language and, technically, it's not even the longest. A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence. Among the best-known poets and authors in German are Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, Hoffmann, Brecht, Heine, and Kafka. The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. It is at a high risk of extinction, with only about 100 speakers remaining, and a topic of interest among linguists seeking to revive interest in the language. [32] German, Afrikaans, and several indigenous languages thus became "national languages" by law, identifying them as elements of the cultural heritage of the nation and ensuring that the state acknowledged and supported their presence in the country. According to a 2012 survey, 47 million people within the EU (i.e., up to two-thirds of the 75–100 million worldwide) claimed to have sufficient German skills to have a conversation. Both languages have borrowed liberally from each other to form their own vocabulary, and today we’ll talk about some of the most common , interesting, useful and odd German words in use in English. [46], German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was much less pronounced. Capital ß (ẞ) was ultimately adopted into German orthography in 2017, ending a long orthographic debate (thus "KREẞLEIN and KRESSLEIN"). But in Germany there are regional languages that are spoken by less and less people: North Frisian and Satar Frisian are particularly at risk according to the Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. i may be able to know passive-wise about 5,000 words in german. [19] The Deutsche Bühnensprache (lit. Thus, Lache is homographous between [laːxə] Lache "puddle" and [laxə] Lache "manner of laughing" (colloquial) or lache! It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world. [72] It is believed that the Nazi régime had banned this script,[who?] Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable level of Standard German influence and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch. In 1534, the Luther Bible was published. However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle". And many of these are everyday words we may not immediately recognise as being French! German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish (based on Central Franconian dialects) and Yiddish. De Gruyter, 2003, p. 2636. One can easily decide which "s" to use by appropriate hyphenation, (Wach-ſtube vs. Wachs-tube). The language supplied the Scandinavian languages with many loanwords, but, with the decline of the league, Low German declined as well. ‘Der, die, das’. The same phenomenon is found in the eastern Netherlands, as the traditional dialects are not always identified with their Low Saxon/Low German origins, but with Dutch. Also related to German are the Frisian languages—North Frisian (spoken in Nordfriesland), Saterland Frisian (spoken in Saterland), and West Frisian (spoken in Friesland)—as well as the Anglic languages of English and Scots. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany. The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. [32] The period of German colonialism in Namibia also led to the evolution of a Standard German-based pidgin language called "Namibian Black German", which became a second language for parts of the indigenous population. The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. disambiguation of completed vs. uncompleted forms is widely observed and regularly generated by common prefixes (. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The one exception is the open /ɛː/ sound of long Ä; in some varieties of standard German, /ɛː/ and /eː/ have merged into [eː], removing this anomaly. It is the mother tongue most spoken in Europe. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities: The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument. It is distinguished from a calque, or loan translation, where a meaning or idiom from another language is translated into existing words or roots of the host language. Pforte, Tafel, Mauer, Käse, Köln from Latin porta, tabula, murus, caseus, Colonia). Rather, it was based on the pronunciation of Standard German in Northern Germany, although it was subsequently regarded often as a general prescriptive norm, despite differing pronunciation traditions especially in the Upper-German-speaking regions that still characterise the dialect of the area today – especially the pronunciation of the ending -ig as [ɪk] instead of [ɪç]. (Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German). That’s why many people often begin their language studies by attempting to memorize high-frequency words. In many varieties of standard German, an unstressed /ɛr/ is not pronounced [ər] but vocalised to [ɐ]. Before the German orthography reform of 1996, ß replaced ss after long vowels and diphthongs and before consonants, word-, or partial-word endings. With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages. [56] This situation has been called a medial diglossia. [9] A clear example of this is the mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache employed in the Hohenstaufen court in Swabia as a standardized supra-dialectal written language. Since the 39th edition in 2001 the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of 1996. Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was also a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phonetic, phonological, morphological, and syntactic changes. In the same manner ß can be transcribed as ss. These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany. It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, and Low Franconian have been proposed to be further distinguished historically as Irminonic, Ingvaeonic, and Istvaeonic, respectively. So not only do you have to remember to capitalize every sentence and "proper" noun like we do in English, you have to capitalize every other thing as well. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century, principally in Puhoi, Nelson, and Gore. [5], As of 2012[update], about 90 million people, or 16% of the European Union's population spoke German as their mother tongue, making it the second most widely spoken language on the continent after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers (after English).[1]. Fourteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Paul von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Carl Spitteler, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, Elias Canetti, Günter Grass, Elfriede Jelinek, Herta Müller and Peter Handke, making it the second most awarded linguistic region (together with French) after English. [47], An important German creole named Unserdeutsch was historically spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea, modern day Papua New Guinea. The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache (VDS), founded in 1997, supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. "double going / living person alive", look-alike of somebody, professional position within a theatre or opera company that deals mainly with research and development of plays or operas, lit. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular. The Österreichisches Wörterbuch ("Austrian Dictionary"), abbreviated ÖWB, is the official dictionary of the German language in the Republic of Austria. Once non-German speakers familiarize themselves with German’s different sounds, however, another kind of poetic beauty will … The longest German word verified to be actually in (albeit very limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind (cattle), Fleisch (meat), Etikettierung(s) (labelling), Überwachung(s) (supervision), Aufgaben (duties), Übertragung(s) (assignment), Gesetz (law)]. Luther said the following concerning his translation method: One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly. immigrants). In 2007, some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in 2008, many of the old comma rules were again put in force. Offsetting carbon emissions ID: ZRI-BSC-471559. 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